Nature VS Nurture - Theories of Personality in 21st Century


Nature vs Nurture theories have wasted a lot of energy of human beings. Plato is considered first to realize that you are made of not only flesh but also an intellectual soul.

The issue may be much older...

In Greek Mythology, when gods created man, they endowed him with divinity. However, the man started challenging them. They feared his potentials and decided to deprive him of the might.

"Where to hide the divinity?" was the big question

They considered heights of icy mountains, limits of shining stars and pits of the earth. But every place was accessible to man's capabilities.

Then they decided to hide it within the man himself.

Since then the man has been climbing icy mountains. He has navigated deep seas. He has traversed moon. His machines have even touched Mars. But he is still looking for his 'lost paradise'.

Man, it is inside you!

They call it personality now. It is 'scientific' to ask how it comes into being. Is it inheritable? Is it natural? Is it outcome of environment? Have you any will to change your behaviors or you are bound to follow the dictates?

Nature vs Nurture theories focus upon these issues. The new discoveries in genome and quantum physics have revived the debate. Incidentally, more they discover, more they bewilder. The abstraction continues intensifying.

How to Define Nature VS Nurture Theories

There are three distinctive schools of thought.

1- Personality is Natural

This group believes that your personality is result of evolutionary process. You inherit behaviors due to complex interaction of genes. They control your behaviors. So you don't have a free will to act otherwise.

2- Personality is Nurtured

This group argues that you don't get your personality inherited. Your mind is a blank slate at your birth. It is your environment, education and culture that make up your behaviors. There are differences on the issue of 'free will' to change your behaviors.

3- Personality is Spiritual

This group claims that your personality is result of neither nature nor nurture. It is gift of some deity. They are split on the issue of 'free will'.

Nature VS Nurture Theories and Evolutionary Psychology-Darwin's theory of evolution led William Hamilton, George Williams and many others to the idea of personality evolution. They proposed that like physical organs, your personality is result of natural selection for survival of the fittest. You do as your genes dictate.

They suggest that fear of death, fear of injury, fear of snakes, shyness, addiction, criminality and sexual orientation are main examples of inheritable behaviors. Steven Pinker (2004) includes religiousness, liberalism and conservativeness in the list. William Paley considers cognitive capabilities, temperaments and cheating behaviors inheritable.

However, there is strong criticism on this approach.

1- There is no single universal behavior which can be proved evolutionary. Even fear of death, that seems natural to all, is overridden in crusades, suicides and suicide bombings.

2- You are made of 25,000 to 30,000 genes. They are merely twice to the number in a fruit fly. Chimpanzees share 95% of your genetic characteristics. However, they don't share even 10% of your behaviors.

3- People don't differ in behaviors as they do differ in skin pigments. Extroverts, introverts, optimists, pessimists, criminals, liberals etc are found in all societies and cultures. Even identical twins (with 100% similar genes) and fraternal twins (with 50% similar genes) behave differently in most of the cases.

4- No genome scientist has related genes or a set of genes with any kind of behaviors.

5- There are a good number of living organisms and fossils which suggest intermediary stages to the physical evolution. However, no such intermediary stages are available for personality evolution.

Nature VS Nurture Theories and Physics

The discoveries in physics have always provided new meat to the nature vs nurture theories. The conclusions of Newton and Einstein helped the people to believe that future events can be predicted with the help of true knowledge of matter and natural laws. This led psychologists to suggest that your future behaviors can be predetermined. The whole mechanism of psychometrics follows this hypothesis.

However, quantum physics has changed the situation altogether. Evidence proves that you can't make two (almost) simultaneous measurements of observables correctly. For example:

1- Position and momentum of a particle

2- Position and direction of a particle

3- Time and frequency of a sound wave

4- Wavelength and magnitude of a sound wave

The list goes on...

The quantum physics has shaken determinism. So much so the scientists have to devise "Heisenberg uncertainty principle" which challenges that any physical event can be predicted precisely in time and space.

Do you think that particles are too small to affect big events?

Reconsider it.

What would happen if Hitler had died in his young age of cancer, which can occur with a slight genetic mutation?

Nature VS Nurture Theories and Reality

"What was the first cause?" Aristotle had asked centuries before

It has been proved that the universe is not result of infinite series of collaborating causes and events. There was a first event; the big bang just 13.7 billions year ago. What was its cause?

There can be only two answers:

1- There was no preceding cause, or

2- There was a first Causer

When you affirm the first statement, you agree that there might be other events which don't have preceding causes. The birth of personality is one of them.

However, if you agree with the second statement, then you are siding with the spiritual school of thought.

What About Environment?

It plays very important role in making of your behaviors. However, any behavior that you acquire is amendable. Secondly, it is not only environment that influences you, the vice versa is also true. You can count hundreds of names who influenced their environments, cultures and societies.

The best advice is to believe in your personality. Use your free will to develop and refine your behaviors. Utilize all out capabilities to collect small successes daily to build bigger one in future. Your way of thinking and style of doing shall determine your destination.

Meanwhile, let the counsels of nature vs nurture theories to continue with their confusing debates.

Psychometrics? Some believe in them and others reject them altogether. However, reality lies in between. Saqib Ali Ateel unlocks secrets of personality, intelligence, aptitude and testing at http://www.personality-and-aptitude-career-tests.com/art





Latest News:




Warning: MagpieRSS: Failed to parse RSS file. (syntax error at line 1, column 0) in /home2/jsteiner/public_html/scholarlyarticles.org/psychology/magpierss/rss_fetch.inc on line 238
Site:

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in /home2/jsteiner/public_html/scholarlyarticles.org/psychology/inc/ads-body.inc on line 34


Site: news - Google News
US urges calm as Kirkuk crisis escalates - BBC News

BBC News

US urges calm as Kirkuk crisis escalates
BBC News
The US has called for "calm" after Iraqi government forces seized the northern city of Kirkuk and key installations from Kurdish control. State department spokeswoman Heather Nauert urged all parties to "avoid further clashes". Iraqi soldiers moved ...
Baghdad: Iraqi forces in full control of KirkukAljazeera.com

all 1,711 news articles »
North Korea: 'Nuclear war may break out any moment' - Fox News

Fox News

North Korea: 'Nuclear war may break out any moment'
Fox News
Rep. Peter King (R-N.Y.) weighs in on President Trump's tough stance on North Korea, and why the could be the first president to successfully bargain with the Hermit Kingdom. North Korea told other countries on Monday to avoid participating in military ...
North Korea: Nuclear war may break out at 'any moment'Aljazeera.com
UK TV drama about North Korea hit by cyber-attackBBC News
North Korea's economy may not survive another year, defector saysCNBC

all 764 news articles »
Bowe Bergdahl pleads guilty in desertion, misbehavior case - ABC News

Fox News

Bowe Bergdahl pleads guilty in desertion, misbehavior case
ABC News
In an interview recorded last year and obtained by ABC News, Bergdahl said that because of Trump's statements, he did not believe he would be able to receive a fair trial. "We may as well go back to kangaroo courts and lynch mobs that got what they ...
Bowe Bergdahl pleads guilty in desertion caseFox News
Army deserter Bowe Bergdahl doubts he could get a fair trial after Trump commentsABC News
Bowe Bergdahl pleads guilty to desertion, faces up to life in prisonCNN
New York Times
all 211 news articles »
The Fox News president - Washington Post

Washington Post

The Fox News president
Washington Post
Since his election as president, Donald Trump has tweeted to or about Fox News nearly 130 times. The most recent example was early Monday morning, when Trump shared a comment from economist Art Laffer that had just been made on a Fox network.

and more »
Restaurant chain 'cut sugary drink sales' with price rise - BBC News

BBC News

Restaurant chain 'cut sugary drink sales' with price rise
BBC News
Prof Susan Jebb, professor of diet and population health at the University of Oxford, said the findings were "encouraging news for public health". But she said there was a disappointing lack of data on alcohol sales, which could have increased over the ...

and more »
Las Vegas guard Jesus Campos vanished after visiting urgent-care clinic, union leader says - Fox News

Fox News

Las Vegas guard Jesus Campos vanished after visiting urgent-care clinic, union leader says
Fox News
A spokesperson at the UMC Quick Care, which has eight locations throughout the Las Vegas area, told Fox News on Monday that they had "heard nothing" about Campos visiting them. Multiple requests from Fox News for SPFPA to comment on the matter ...

and more »
Bombardier to partner Airbus on C-Series jets - BBC News

BBC News

Bombardier to partner Airbus on C-Series jets
BBC News
Bombardier's Northern Ireland's director Michael Ryan said the deal was "great news" for the Belfast operation. About 1,000 staff work on the C-Series at a purpose-built factory in Belfast, mostly making the plane's wings. Airbus and Bombardier's chief ...

and more »
Weinstein scandal puts several movies on hold - Fox News

Fox News

Weinstein scandal puts several movies on hold
Fox News
Harvey Weinstein's downfall may also down his slate of upcoming movies ? including his solo live-action directorial debut. Weinstein announced in August that he would direct ?Mila 18,? an adaptation of Leon Uris' novel about the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.

and more »
Trump suggests Obama didn't call families of fallen soldiers as president - CBS News

CBS News

Trump suggests Obama didn't call families of fallen soldiers as president
CBS News
A former White House official also told CBS News, "President Trump's claim is wrong. President Obama engaged families of the fallen and wounded warriors throughout his presidency through calls, letters, visits to Section 60 at Arlington, visits to ...
Trump Falsely Claims Obama Didn't Contact Families of Fallen TroopsNew York Times

all 202 news articles »
McCain condemns isolationist politics, calls it 'unpatriotic' - Fox News

Fox News

McCain condemns isolationist politics, calls it 'unpatriotic'
Fox News
Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., right, accompanied by Chair of the National Constitution Center's Board of Trustees, former Vice President Joe Biden, waves as he takes the stage before receiving the Liberty Medal in Philadelphia, Monday, Oct. 16, 2017. (AP).

and more »

MORE RESOURCES:

Warning: MagpieRSS: Failed to parse RSS file. (syntax error at line 1, column 0) in /home2/jsteiner/public_html/scholarlyarticles.org/psychology/magpierss/rss_fetch.inc on line 238
Site:

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in /home2/jsteiner/public_html/scholarlyarticles.org/psychology/inc/rss.php on line 9
Site: psychology - Google News
Aarushi murder case: Psychology, projection and misperception - Times of India (blog)

Times of India (blog)

Aarushi murder case: Psychology, projection and misperception
Times of India (blog)
If I were to select one contribution of Freud and Psychoanalysis to the study of human behaviour, I would definitely go with the defense mechanism of projection. Very simply put, projection tells us that we do not see the world as it is. We see the ...

and more »
Teva's Ongoing Complications: Psychology And Generic Drugs - Seeking Alpha

Seeking Alpha

Teva's Ongoing Complications: Psychology And Generic Drugs
Seeking Alpha
This article is taking a different approach and examining some other factors for why Teva may be struggling. Psychology may very well be influencing patients' choice and doctors' recommendations when comparing generic vs. branded drugs. Branded drugs ...

Stress Makes It Harder to Recognize Danger - Psychology Today (blog)

Psychology Today (blog)

Stress Makes It Harder to Recognize Danger
Psychology Today (blog)
Stress comes in different forms?pain, hunger, fear, psychological upset. When we're under stress, it's often assumed that we are on heightened alert. If something hurts us, we imagine that an internal security system clicks on, scanning for other ...

Hacking the mind of a hacker: ET decodes the psychology of a cyber criminal - Economic Times

Economic Times

Hacking the mind of a hacker: ET decodes the psychology of a cyber criminal
Economic Times
Alok (name changed on request) is in his early teens, not the age when he should be making thousands of dollars. Alok is a hacker who lives on the dangerous by-lanes of the internet?the dark web. Accessible only through browsers designed to promote ...

The Key to Forgiveness? - Psychology Today (blog)

Psychology Today (blog)

The Key to Forgiveness?
Psychology Today (blog)
Life without intimacy would be dreary. Our intimate relationships provide us with companionship, love, and social support. And the people we're closest to expand our horizons by exposing us to new ideas, activities, and adventures. Close relationships ...

The Science of Falling Out of Love - Psychology Today (blog)

The Science of Falling Out of Love
Psychology Today (blog)
... Sanchez, M. E. (2017, August 31). Down-Regulation of Love Feelings After a Romantic Break-Up: Self-Report and Electrophysiological Data. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xge0000360.

Why Do People Think Animals Make Good Therapists? - Psychology Today (blog)

Psychology Today (blog)

Why Do People Think Animals Make Good Therapists?
Psychology Today (blog)
Further, as I have described in a series of Psychology Today posts (here, here, and here), the validity of most studies on the curative powers of animals is compromised by methodological problems such as small samples and lack of control groups.

Psychologists are facing consequences for helping with torture. It's not enough. - Washington Post

Washington Post

Psychologists are facing consequences for helping with torture. It's not enough.
Washington Post
In August, two psychologists, James Mitchell and Bruce Jessen, settled a lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union on behalf of three former CIA detainees. The psychologists were accused of designing, implementing and overseeing the CIA's ...

Investing: The psychology of a market bubble - Chicago Tribune

Investing: The psychology of a market bubble
Chicago Tribune
In the ninth year of an indefatigable bull market -- which for now remains undeterred in the face of congressional investigations, devastating hurricanes and the threat of nuclear war -- investors are starting to worry about a speculative bubble. From ...

Is Facebook Making You Depressed? - Psychology Today (blog)

Is Facebook Making You Depressed?
Psychology Today (blog)
That experience of ?FOMO,? or Fear of Missing Out, is one that psychologists identified several years ago as a potent risk of Facebook use. You're alone on a Saturday night, decide to check in to see what your Facebook friends are doing, and see that ...

Home | Site Map | Resource Links